ON THIS DAY – 29TH DECEMBER Mongolian Independence Day is Celebrated

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National Independence Day is celebrated in Mongolia every year on December 29. This day marks the Mongolian independence declaration from Manchu Qing Empire and establishment of the Republic of Mongolia.

On December 29 in 1911, the landlocked North East Asian country Mongolia declared its independence from the Qing Dynasty, after the Mongolian Revolution of 1911. The country was under the Qing Rule for about 200 years.

 

Mongolia Independence History

The historical backdrop of Mongolia’s struggle for independence goes back to centuries. After the great Mongolian Khanate empires weakened, in the mid 1600’s, Mongolia was threatened by the Manchus.

Therefore, they went to the Chinese Ming Dynasty for help in shielding themselves. However, the Manchus ended up taking control of China under the Qing Dynasty and furthermore taking control of Mongolia. At long last, the Qing Dynasty fell in 1911, and Mongolia declared its independence that year on 29 December.

Countless have occupied Mongolia since prehistoric times. The greater part of these individuals were migrants who, every now and then, formed confederations that rose to prominence. The first of these, the Xiongnu, were united to shape a confederation by Modu Shanyu in 209 BC.

In 1206, Changez Khan (also called Genghis Khan) established the Mongol Empire, the biggest empire ever. The Mongol Empire’s territory stretched from present-day Poland in the west to the Korean peninsula in the east, from Siberia in the north to the Arab peninsula and Vietnam in the south, covering roughly 33 million square kilometers.

In 1227, after Genghis Khan’s demise, the Mongol Domain was subdivided into four kingdoms. In 1260, Genghis Khan’s grandson, Kublai Khan, ascended the throne of one of the four kingdoms that included present-day Mongolia and China.

In 1271, Kublai Khan officially established the Yuan Dynasty. The Yuan Dynasty was the main foreign dynasty to govern all of China until the point when it was ousted by the Chinese Ming Dynasty in 1368.

By the end of the 17th century once powerful Mongolia was weakened due to decentralization. Ligdan Khan signed the treaty with the Ming dynasty of China to protect the northern border of Mongolia from the Manchus attack. After his death in 1634 most of Inner Mongolian tribes were submitted to the Manchus, who founded the Qing dynasty of China.

The Mongol court came back to its local land, however, hundreds of years of interior clash, expansion, and contraction brought them to fall into the Manchu Qing Dynasty. They conquered Inner Mongolia in 1636.

Outer Mongolia was submitted in 1691. For the following 200 years, Mongolia was administered by the Qing Dynasty until 1911. Mongolia pronounced its independence in 1911 under the Bogd Khan, the spiritual leader of Mongolia’s Tibetan Buddhism.

The Republic of China invaded Mongolia in 1919. They were ousted in 1921. The Soviets then supported Mongolian independence leading to the Mongolian People’s Party declaring independence for a second time on July 11th 1921. This second independence is commemorated each year on Revolution Day which marks the start of the Naadam Festival and is the National Day of Mongolia.

How Did Mongolia Gain Independence?

After the Xinhai Revolution in China in May 1911, the Qing dynasty was overthrown and Mongolia under the Bogd Khaan declared its independence on December 29, 1911.

Restoration of the National Freedom and Independence in 1911 is considered as the huge recorded occasion to be celebrated proudly all through the nationwide from generations to generations. As indicated by the law approved by the Parliament on August 16, 2007, the 29th of December is celebrated as a public holiday.

The Mongolian Declaration of Independence was unique in relation to declarations of other provinces. While others predicted future integration into China, Mongolia’s declaration dismissed this thought.

The significance of the Declaration of Independence is obvious considering that Mongolia, in the end, achieved independence after numerous twists and turns. Today it is the only independent country among the many regions under control of the Qing Dynasty.

 

Celebrations

The Day of National Liberation Movement and Independence has been celebrated since 2011 as a public holiday in accordance with the Law on Public Holidays and Celebrations. Many festive events are organized in the capital, Ulaanbaatar, and other places in the country.

Based on the works of foreign and domestic scientists and researchers about the national revolution of 1911, it was decided to proclaim December 29th as National Independence Day in 2007. The decree of the President of Mongolia on the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the national revolution was issued on December 29, 2008. In the summer of 2010, a special government committee was set up to celebrate this anniversary, led by Deputy Prime Minister Mieegombyn Enkhbold.

However, with ongoing nationwide heightened state of readiness until December 31 and lockdown in Ulaanbaatar city in place until January 6 due to COVID-19 pandemic, no official celebratory events and activities are planned for the anniversary this year. A wreath-laying ceremony to the Chinggis Khaan Statue on the central square attended by high level state officials and wrestling tournaments are usually organized on this day.

 

What does the Mongolian national flag represent?

The Mongolian national flag was adopted in January 1992, and it was first hoisted in February 1992. The flag is emblem of Mongolian sovereignty, and it comprises of three vertical bands-red, blue, red. The red band on the hoist side features the yellow ensign – Soyombo, which is Mongolian national emblem.

The blue color forms the center band of the flag. It symbolizes the eternal blue sky, and the Mongolian spirit to flourish in bleak circumstances, respectively. The columnar array of the Soyombo epitomizes numerous meanings.

Beginning at the top, the star represents the socialist revolution; the fire symbol just below it epitomizes rejuvenation and progression or evolution, and the three branches of the flame capture the past, present and future.

The sun and moon denote the sky, and the two triangles signifying an arrow and spear are pointed downward to indicate defeat or death for the enemy. The two horizontal rectangles symbolize the virtues of fairness and honesty, and the Yin Yang symbol between these two rectangles symbolizes fishes in Mongolian culture.

It is believed that fishes never close their eyes, and thus signify wisdom and reason. This also represents harmony. The two vertical rectangles enclosing the Soyombo represent the strength and firmness of the Mongolian people.

Who wrote the national anthem of Mongolia?

The music of the Mongolian National Anthem was composed by Bilegiin Damdinsuren and Luvsanjambyn Mordorj, and the song itself was written by Tsendiin Damdinsuren.

Mongolia has seen many changes in its national anthem over the years. Its current national anthem has been in place since 1950, but its lyrics were altered after Mongolia made a transition to democracy in 1990, primarily to remove the passages eulogizing the communist heroes. In July 2006, the Mongolian government revised the lyrics again to honor Chinggis Khan.

 

CONCLUSION

The Mongols have a long prehistory and a most remarkable history. From 1921 until the end of the 1980s, Mongolia was a one-party state closely tied to the Soviet Union. It received technical, economic, and military assistance from the Soviet Union and generally followed Soviet guidance in political and economic matters and in the building of a socialist society.

However, beginning in 1990, forces for change in Mongolia ended the monopoly of political power by the communists in favour of free multiparty elections, coalition government, a new constitution, greater cultural and religious freedom with more emphasis on Mongol national traditions, a neutral position in international relations, and a transition to a market economy.

On this day in 1911, Mongolia restored its independence after around 200 years of Manchu rule with a national movement known as the 1911 Revolution. On December 29, the Mongolian individuals enthroned the 8th Bogd Jebtsundamba Khutuktu as the Lord of Mongolia and a religious ruler. With the enthronement, Mongolia turned into a Bogd Khaanate.